روش تدریس The natural Approach

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The Natural Approach | Methods and Approaches of Language Teaching

  1. 2. Introduction Natural Approach:Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the “Natural Approach” in the early eighties(Krashen and Terrell, 1983),based on Krashens‟ theories about second language acquisition.2
  2. 3. This acquisition-focused approach sees communicative competence progressing through three stages:(a) Aural comprehension,(b) Early speech production, and(c) Speech activities, all fostering “natural”language acquisition, much as a child would learn his/her native tongue. 3
  3. 4. Following an initial “silent period”,comprehension should precede production in speech, as the latter should be allowed to emerge in natural stages or progressions.4
  4. 5. Background Historical Context70‟ was a fruitful era in second language research.Noam Chomsky explained a new theory of language (Acquisition and Learning).5
  5. 6. Background Historical Context Innovate methods for language teaching:Community Language Learning Charles Currant (1972)Suggestopedia Lozanov (1979)The Silent Way Caleb Gattegno (1972)Total Physical Response James Asher (1977)The Natural Approach Krashen and Terrell. (1983)6
  6. 7. Overview In the Natural Approach that eacher speaks only the target language and class time is committed to providing input for acquisition.7
  7. 8. Students may use either the language being taught or their first language. Errors in speech are not corrected; however homework may include grammar exercises that will be corrected.8
  8. 9. Goals for the class emphasize the students being able use the language “to talk about ideas,perform tasks, and solve problems.”This approach aims to fulfill there requirements for learning and acquisition, and does a great job in doing it.9
  9. 10. Its main weakness is that all classroom teaching is to some degree limited in its ability to be interesting and relevant to all students.10
  10. 11. L2 Acquisition Theory Curriculum The Natural Approach Combines Learning Process Spoken Production During Focused on11
  11. 12. Krashens‟ theories of second language acquisition, and his five hypotheses.“Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language – natural communication – in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are convey ingand understanding.”Stephen Krashen12
  12. 13. The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis Language acquisition (anunconscious process developed through using language meaningfully) is different from language learning (consciously learning or discovering rules about a language)and language acquisition is the only way competence in a second language can develop. 13
  13. 14. A learning theory should respond to these two questions:“What are the psycholinguisticand cognitive processes involved in language teaching?”“What are the conditions thatneed to be met in order for these learning processes to be activated?”14
  14. 15. Stephen Krashens‟ MonitorTheory, which is based on The Natural Approach, answers both questions by distinguishing between the “acquisition”and “learning” processes, and by describing the type of input the learners receive, which should be at their level, interest, of sufficient quantity, and in low-anxiety contexts,and these are the conditions.15
  15. 16. Tracy D. Terrell (Natural Approach),and James Asher (Total PhysicalResponse) are examples ofmethods based on this learningtheory.16
  16. 17. Charles A. Curran‟s CounselingLearning and Caleb Gattegno‟s SilentWay also focus on this learning theory,but they focus primarily on theconditions more than in the processes.Their concern is directed to theatmosphere of the classroom, and theyseek for motivation, confidence andsecurity within the students.17
  17. 18. Theory of LanguageThe essence of language is meaning.Vocabulary not grammar is the heart oflanguage.It emphasized “Comprehensible Input”,distinguishing between „acquisition‟ – anatural subconscious process, and „learning‟– a conscious process. It is argued thatlearning cannot lead to acquisition. Thefocus is on meaning, not form (structure,grammar).18
  18. 19. “The best methods… are therefore those that supplycomprehensible input in low anxietysituations, containing messages thatstudents really want to hear.These methods do not forceearly production in the secondlanguage, but allow students toproduce when they are ready,recognizing that improvementcomes from supplyingcommunicative and comprehensibleinput, and not from forcing andcorrecting production.” StephenKrashen19
  19. 20. Theory of LanguageThe Natural Approach:Reflecting the cognitive psychologyand humanistic approach prominent in thefield of education at that time, the NaturalApproach shifted the culture of thelanguage classroom 180 degrees andbrought a sense of community to thestudents by their sharing of the experienceof learning the same language together.20
  20. 21. Theory of Learning“Languageacquisition does notrequire extensiveuse of consciousgrammatical rules,and does notrequire tediousdrill.”Stephen Krashen 21
  21. 22. The Natural Order HypothesisGrammaticalstructures areacquired in apredictable orderand it does littlegood to try to learnthem in anotherorder.22
  22. 23. Input HypothesisPeople acquirelanguage bestfrom messagesthat are justslightly beyondtheir currentcompetence: i+123
  23. 24. The Monitor HypothesisConscious learningoperates only as amonitor or editorthat checks orrepairs the output ofwhat has beenacquired.24
  24. 25. The Affective Filter HypothesisThe learnersemotional state canact as a filter thatimpedes or blocksinput necessary forlanguage acquisition.25
  25. 26. Design: Objectives Objectives Designed to givebeginners/ intermediatelearner communicativeskills.Four broad areas; basicpersonal communicativeskills (speaking/listening);academic learning skills(oral/written)26
  26. 27. Design: SyllabusSyllabusThe syllabus forthe Natural Approachis a communicativesyllabus.Based on a selectionof communicativeactivities and topicsderived from learnerneeds.27
  27. 28. Types of learning techniques and activitiesComprehensibleinput is presentedin the targetlanguage, usingtechniques suchas TPR, mime andgesture.Group techniquesare similar toCommunicativeLanguage Teaching.Learners start to talkwhen they are ready.28
  28. 29. Learner roles:Focused on meaningful and vocabularyShould not try andlearn a language inthe usual sense, butshould try and losethemselves inactivities involvingmeaningfulcommunication.Meaningful Vocabulary29
  29. 30. Teacher roles:Teachers should provide “comprehensible input“ (i+1)The teacher is theprimary source ofcomprehensibleinput. Must createpositive low-anxietyclimate. Must chooseand orchestrate arich mixture ofclassroom activities.30
  30. 31. Roles of materialsThe world of relia ratherthan text books. Visual aids areessential like schedules,brochures, advertisement,maps, books of a levelappropriate to the learners.31
  31. 32. ProcedurePresentation of a situation or contextthrough a brief dialogue or several mini-dialogues, preceded by a motivationalactivity relating the dialogue to learners‟experiences and interest.These are the steps to follow inplanning a lesson using thecommunicative or the Natural approachto second-language teaching:32
  32. 33. ProcedureThis includes a discussion ofthe functional and situational roles,settings, topics at the level offormality or informality that functionor situation demands.33
  33. 34. Procedure / Process Brainstorming ordiscussion to establishthe vocabulary andexpressions to be used toaccomplish thecommunicative intent.Includes a framework ormeans of structuring aconversation or exchangeto achieve the purpose ofthe speakers.Questions and answersbased on the dialoguetopic and situation:Inverted, wh- questions,yes/no, either/or andopen-ended questions.34
  34. 35. Procedure / ProcessStudy of the basiccommunicativeexpressions in thedialogue or one ofthe structures that exemplifies the function, usingpictures, real objects,or dramatization toclarify the meaning.Learner discovery ofgeneralizations or rulesunderlying the functionalexpression or structure,with model examples onthe whiteboard,underlining the importantfeatures, using arrows orreferents where feasible.35
  35. 36. Procedure / ProcessOral recognitionand interpretativeactivities includingoral productionproceeding fromguided to freercommunicationactivities.Oral evaluation oflearning with guideduse of language andquestions/answers,e.g. “How would youask your friend to________________?And how would youask me to_________?”36
  36. 37. Procedure / ProcessReading and/orcopying of thedialogues withvariations forreading/writingpractice.To complete thelesson cycle, provideopportunities to applythe language learnedthe day before innovel situations forthe same or a relatedpurpose.37
  37. 38. ConclusionThe Natural Approach adopts techniquesand activities from different sources butuses them to provide comprehensibleinput.Language AcquisitionLanguage Processing 38
  38. 39. The use of the term „NaturalApproach’ rather than ‘Method’highlights the development of a moveaway from ‘method’ which implies aparticular set of features to be followed,almost as to ‘approach’ which startsfrom some basic principles developed inthe design and practice in teaching andlearning.39
  39. 40. It is now widely recognized thatthe diversity of contexts requiresan informed, eclectic approach.40
  40. 41. “It has been realized thatthere never was and probablynever will be a method for all, andthe focus in recent years has beenon the development of classroomtasks and activities which areconsonant with what we knowabout second language acquisition,and which are also in keeping withthe dynamics of the classroomitself” (Nunan 1991: 228).To quote Nunan:41
  41. 42. Summary of The Natural MethodCurriculumTeacherMotivationClassroomLearningEnvironmentInstructionalStrategiesAcquisition42
  42. 43. Theory of languageThe Communicative view of languageis the focus behind “The Natural Approach”.Particular emphasis is laid on language as aset of messages that can be understood.43
  43. 44. Theory of languageLanguage is a vehicle forcommunicating meanings and messages Communicative approach The focus on meaning not formVocabulary is stressed (Lexicon)Formula i + 144
  44. 45. Theory of learning – The Natural Approachs based on the following tenets:Language acquisition (an unconscious process developed through using language meaningfully) is different from language learning (consciously learning or discovering rules about a language) and language acquisition is the only way competence in asecond language occurs.(The Acquisition/Learning Hypothesis)45
  45. 46. Grammatical structures are acquired in a predictable order and it does little good to try to learn them in another order.(The Natural Order Hypothesis)People acquire language best from messages that are just slightly beyond their current competence:i+1 (The Input hypothesis)46
  46. 47. Conscious learning operates only asa monitor or editor that checks or repairsthe output of what has been acquired.(The Monitor Hypothesis)The learners emotional state canact as a filter that impedes or blocks input necessary for language acquisition.(The Affective Filter Hypothesis)47
  47. 48. 48Objectives:Design: Specific objectives depend onlearners‟ needs, skills and level.Syllabus:Typical goals for language courses or particular needs and interest ofstudents topics and situations.
  48. 49. 49Learners’ Roles:Processor of comprehensible input.Pre-production stage Early production stage Speech emergent phaseLearner to learner interaction encourage in pair & small groupGuesser – Immerser
  49. 50. 50Teachers’ Roles:Primary source of comprehensive inputCreates atmosphere – learner centeredFacilitator – Orchestrate classroomactivitiesEdu-actor – props user
  50. 51. 51Types of learning techniques and activities:Comprehensible input is presented in thetarget language, using techniques suchas TPR, mime and gesture.Group techniques are similar toCommunicative Language Teaching.Learners start to talk when they areready.
  51. 52. 52ProcedureThe Natural Approach adoptstechniques and activities from differentsources but uses them to provide comprehensible input.Language is a tool for communication Language function over Linguistic form Comprehension before production – task
  52. 53. 53AssessmentCommunicative effectiveness.Fluency over accuracy.Task based oriented.No error correction unless errors interfere with communication
  53. 54. References: Cook, V. websitehttp://homepage.ntlworld.com/vivian.c/SLA/Krashen.htm Krashen, S. (1985) The Input Hypothesis. London: Longman Krashen, S. & Terrell, T.D. (1983), The Natural Approach, Pergamon Nunan, David (ed) 2003 Practical English Language Teaching McGraw Hill. Nunan, David 1989 Designing Tasks for the Communicative Classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Richards, J., & Rodgers, T. (2001). Approaches and methods in language Teaching (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. http://www.tprstories.com/ijflt/55